Bronchitis-causes, Symptoms,treatment

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Treatment of Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the main air passages (bronchi) to your lungs. It causes a cough, shortness of breath and chest tightness. Coughing often brings up yellow or greenish mucus. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic.Bronchitis is inflammation of the large airways that branch off the trachea (bronchi), usually caused by infection but sometimes caused by irritation from a gas or particle.

Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks
Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive

Causes of Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis
The same viruses that cause colds often cause acute bronchitis. But you can also develop noninfectious bronchitis from exposure to your own or someone else’s cigarette smoke and even from pollutants such as household cleaners and smog.

Chronic bronchitis is also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD for short. (Emphysema is another type of COPD.) As the condition gets worse, you become increasingly short of breath, have difficulty walking or exerting yourself physically, and may need supplemental oxygen on a regular basis.

Familial emphysema, or alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency-related emphysema, is caused by the hereditary deficiency of a protein called alpha1-antitrypsin. This deficiency leads to uncontrolled destruction of the alveoli and emphysema. Occupational exposure to dust, fumes, and gases appears to contribute slightly to lung function decline and chronic bronchitis. The role of air pollution in COPD remains controversial.In most cases, the same viruses that cause colds cause acute bronchitis. Research has shown that bacterial infection is a much less common cause of bronchitis than we used to think. Very rarely, an infection caused by a fungus can cause acute bronchitis.

Symptoms of Bronchitis
Infectious bronchitis generally begins with the symptoms of a common cold: runny nose, sore throat, fatigue, chilliness, and back and muscle aches. A slight fever (100° to 101° F) may be present. The onset of cough (usually dry at first) signals the beginning of acute bronchitis. With viral bronchitis, small amounts of white mucus are often coughed up. When the coughed-up mucus changes from white to green or yellow, the condition may have been complicated by a bacterial infection.

The cough may last for more than two weeks. Continued forceful coughing may make your chest and abdominal muscles sore. Coughing can be severe enough at times to injure the chest wall or even cause you to pass out.When the main air passageways in your lungs (bronchial tubes) are inflamed, they often produce large amounts of discolored mucus that comes up when you cough. If this persists for more than three months, it is referred to as chronic bronchitis. Mucus that isn’t white or clear usually means there’s a secondary infection.

Treatment of Bronchitis:
There is no cure for chronic bronchitis. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. It is crucial to quit smoking to prevent chronic bronchitis from getting worse. Any other respiratory irritants should be avoided.

In the case of patients with status asthmaticus requiring treatment with mechanical ventilation, there may be complications of the mechanical ventilation, including disorders of the trachea or persistent bronchopleural fistula, which may require prolonged hospitalization or readmission